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Zigbee Wireless Communication Protocol

Zigbee modules are the wireless communication modules that are built based on Zigbee standard. They utilize the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. Zigbee standards are standards with a range between Bluetooth and WIFI. They are basically RF modules. Wireless technology can be challenging without the right combination of expertise and resources. The Zigbee is an arrangement of modular products that make deploying wireless technology easy and cost-effective. The module can communicate up to 100 feet indoors or 300 feet outdoors.

It can be used as a serial replacement or you can put it into a command mode and configure it for a variety of broadcast andmesh-networking options. The Zigbee modules provide wireless connectivity to devices.

The Zigbee Network transceivers support UART and SPI protocol.
The Zigbee network transceivers have SoC.
The Zigbee network transceivers use binary phase shift keying (bpsk) modulation technique.
The operating voltage of Zigbee transceivers is 1.8v–3.8V.
A Network node consists of 802.15.4 RF transceiver.

Zigbee Architecture

Zigbee system structure consists of three different types of devices such as Zigbee coordinator, Router and End device. Every Zigbee network must consist of at least one coordinator which acts as a root and bridge of the network. The coordinator is responsible for handling and storing the information while performing receiving and transmitting data operations. Zigbee routers act as intermediary devices that permit data to pass to and fro through them to other devices. End devices have limited functionality to communicate with the parent nodes such that the battery power is saved as shown in the figure. The number of routers, coordinators and end devices depends on the type of network such as star, tree and mesh networks.

Zigbee protocol architecture consists of a stack of various layers wherein IEEE 802.15.4 is defined by the physical and MAC layers while this protocol is completed by accumulating Zigbee’s own network and application layers.
Applications of  Zigbee Technology

Industrial Automation: In manufacturing and production industries, a communication link continually monitors various parameters and critical equipment. Hence, Zigbee considerably reduces this communication cost as well as optimizes the control process for greater reliability.

Home Automation: Zigbee is perfectly suited for controlling home appliances remotely as a lighting system control, appliance control, heating and cooling system control, safety equipment operations and control unit, surveillance unit, and so on.

Smart Metering: Zigbee remote operations in smart metering include energy consumption response, pricing support, security over power theft, etc.

Smart Grid monitoring: Zigbee operations in this smart grid involve remote temperature monitoring, fault locating, reactive-power management, and so on.